RESEARCH ARTICLE


Comparative Functional Genomics Studies for Understanding the Hypothetical Proteins in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Variant Microti 12



Tejaswini Vijay Shinde1, 2, Tejas Gajanan Shinde1, 2, Vinay Vasantrao Chougule2, Anagha Rajendra Ghorpade2, Geeta Vikas Utekar1, Amol Sheshrao Jadhav1, Bandu Shamlal Pawar1, Swapnil Ganesh Sanmukh2, *
1 Department of Microbiology, Yashwantrao Chavan Institute of Science (Autonomous), Satara 415001, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Miraj Mahavidyalaya Miraj, (Affiliated to Shivaji University, Kolhapur), Shivaji Nagar, Sangli, Maharashtra 416410, India


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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Shinde et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Miraj Mahavidyalaya Miraj. Shivaji Nagar, Sangli, Maharashtra 416410, India (Affiliated to Shivaji University, Kolhapur); E-mail: s.sanmukh@unesp.br


Abstract

Background:

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bacteria include the slowly growing, host-associated bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Bovis, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium pinnipedii.

Aim:

Comparative Functional Genomics Studies for understanding the Hypothetical Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant microti 12.

Objective:

A computational genomics study was performed to understand the 247 hypothetical protein genes. Functional annotation of virtual proteins was performed on different servers to maximize confidence level.

Methods:

Sequence Retrieval. The whole genome sequences for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis micro variant 12 were retrieved from the KEGG database ( http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) and were used for screening 247 hypothetical proteins (Fig. 1). Functional Annotation and Sub-cellular localization. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis micro variant 12 hypothetical proteins were screened and sorted out from the genome and were individually analyzed for the presence of conserved functional domains by using computational biology tools like CDD-BLAST ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi) ;Pfam ( http://pfam.xfam.org/ncbiseq/398365647); The subcellular localization of hypothetical proteins was determined by CELLO2GO ( http://cello.life.nctu.edu.tw). These web tools can search the defined conserved domains in the sequences available in the online servers or databases and assist in the classification of proteins in the appropriate families. Protein Structure Prediction. The in-silico structure predictions of the hypothetical protein sequences showing functional properties were carried out by using the PS2 Protein Structure Prediction Server ( http://www.ps2.life.nctu.edu.tw/). The online server helps to generate the 3D structures of the hypothetical proteins. The server accepts the sequences in FASTA format as a query to generate resultant proteins 3D structures. The structure determination is completely based on the conserved template regions detected during functional annotations. Protein-protein interaction through String database: The interaction of each hypothetical protein analyzed for functional characteristics was subjected to a protein-protein interaction server for the prediction of a possible functional role in interaction amongst the available known proteins ( https://string-db.org/). This information can help us to further validated the functional role of such hypothetical proteins and their possible role in the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis micro variant. Protein secondary structure prediction through JPred4: The secondary structure prediction of all the hypothetical proteins was determined through JPred4 ( http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/jpred4/index.html) and served to identify the available secondary structures in the unknown hypothetical protein sequences. These further help us to understand the available templates in the uncharacterized protein sequences for the prediction of novel functions associated with these proteins. The predictions were further characterized by the Phyre2 server for structural modeling and prediction of templates based on comparative analysis based on conserved domains. Protein modeling, prediction, and analysis through Phyre2. The hypothetical proteins which were identified to have functional properties were further characterized by the Phyre2 server ( http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/phyre2) for structural modeling and prediction of templates based on comparative analysis based on conserved domains.

Results:

A computational genomics study was performed to understand the 247 hypothetical protein genes Functional annotation of virtual proteins, and was performed on different servers to maximize confidence level. The functional prediction was performed by CDD-Blast and Pfam. The gene sequences of proteins have probably been successfully functionally annotated, characterized, and their subcellular localization and 3-D structural predictions have been predicted computationally. Online automated bioinformatics tools such as CDD-Blast, Pfam, CELLO2GO and PS2-Server were used for the structural and functional characterization of screened hypothetical proteins. The structure, function, and subcellular localization of a hypothetical protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant microti 12 have been obtained and presented (Fig. 2). Also, the three-dimensional structure generated after using the template with the highest score was displayed as the template ID in the structure column of the respective hypothetical protein. However, as systems biology denies hypothetical protein functions, the structures of such proteins can be tested through biological processes and experiments, making them suitable for understanding their role in the life cycle, pathogenesis, and drug development. We can further explore these predictive possibilities in pharmaceuticals, and other clinically relevant studies. This study by HP helped find structure-function relationships in Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant microti 12 using a variety of bioinformatics tools. The string database made predictions about protein-protein interactions and the template helped us predict a hypothetical protein structure and even helped us find its 3D protein structure. Protein profiling can be performed on structures retrieved from these servers. This is useful for proteomics studies, including protein-protein interactions, protein expression of specific hypothetical proteins, and post-translational modifications of protein-coding genes. Further understanding of these hypothetical proteins can help us to know more about the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and may assist in Drugs and inhibitors against different pathogens within this complex.

Conclusion:

The all-inclusive bioinformatic study has helped to functionally elucidate 247 hypothetical proteins, which have resulted and made it easier to understand many functional proteins available in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis micro variant 12. The subcellular localization of the 247 sorted hypothetical proteins was also carried & which further helped us understand the localization of identified enzymes or proteins. We have successfully characterized the 247 unknown proteins of hypothetical protein sequences from Mycobacterium tuberculosis micro variant 12 to validate their structure and functions of the gene products. These predicted functions and three-dimensional structures may lead to establishing their role in the life cycle of the bacterium. This computationally generated data can also be further used for developing new protocols for new vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis micro variant 12 that are essential for preventing infection, diseases, and transmission.

This complete result of Hypothetical Protein is needed for further studies of the whole genomic of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis micro variant 12 for their function interpretation which further help in the understanding of its functions as well as structure.

Moreover, this interpretation would help us to study the evolution of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis micro variant 12 which further helps in the process of discovering the drugs to inhibit the causes of diseases.

Keywords: Hypothetical proteins, Functional prediction, Protein structure prediction, Subcellular localization, Diseases, Contagious infections.